Introduction to tomato farming in Karnataka, cultivation practices: The tomato plant is an annual or short-lived perennial herb with greyish green curled uneven pinnate leaves. It produces red or yellow fruits that are surrounded by off-white flowers. Crops like this are self-pollinating. In the central part of the country, tomato-producing states include Karnataka. Karnataka’s Kolar district is well known for its tomato cultivation. The district is covered by about 9000 acres of fruit that gives our meals a delicious flavor. The yearly production of tomatoes here is an average of 4 lakh tons. Usually, the business earns them good profits because Karnataka is one of the most significant producers of tomatoes. Many of the tomato varieties grown are also exported abroad, where they make a niche market. Until 2619 quintals of tomatoes were being brought to the market every day. Approximately 1,133 rupees are sold per quintal. However, a shocking drop in prices the next day brought the price of quintals down to Rs 133. To grow tomatoes, farmers in Karnataka have to go 2,000 feet underground to find groundwater.
A guide to tomato farming in Karnataka, cultivation practices, growing areas, growing seasons, amd tomato yield per acre Karnataka
Growing areas for tomatoes in Karnataka
The program is extended to Kovar, Chikkaballapur, and Belgavi, three tomato-growing districts in central India, and Davangere and Haveri, two important corn-producing districts. Marijuana and tomatoes are among the most important products produced in Karnataka.
The growing season for tomatoes in Karnataka
The growing season for tomatoes in Karnataka is May to August.
Variety of tomato plants to grow in Karnataka
Improved Verity: Pusa- 120, Pusa Ruby, Pusa shital, Pusa Early Dwarf, Pusa Gaurav, Arka Ahuti ,Arka Saurabh,Arka Vikas,Arka Meghali, HS102,HS101, HS110,Hisar Lalit, Hisar Arun,Hisar Anmol, Hisar Lalima, Co-1, CO-02, CO-3, S-12,PKM 1,Pant Bahar, Punjab Chhuhara, Pant T3 and Solan Gola
Hybrids Verity: Pusa Hybrid 1, Pusa Hybrid 2, Pusa Hybrid 3, Arka Vishal, Arka Shresta, Vaishali, Arka Abhijit, Arka VardanRashmi, MTH 4, Naveen, Rupali, COTH 1 Hybrid Tomato, Avinash 2, Sonali, Sadabahar, and Gulmohar.
Karnataka needs to cultivate tomato plants
- I am choosing the best tomato varieties.
- Prepare the seeds before planting.
- Tomatoes are being transplanted outside.
- The tomato vines are staked.
- Take care of tomato plants.
Tomato farming techniques in Karnataka
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Soil: Several different types of soil are used to grow tomatoes, from sandy to clay. The ideal soils are well-drained, sandy, or red loam soils with a pH range of 6.0-7.0.
Climate: Summer is an excellent time to grow tomatoes. When the fruit is between 21-24°C, it develops the most vibrant color and quality. The development of fruit and set is adversely affected by temperatures above 32°C. In high humidity and frost, the plants are unable to survive. Therefore, there is no need for high rainfall. When fruit set occurs, bright sunlight promotes the development of dark red colored fruits. Low temperatures adversely affect plant tissues, slowing down their physiological activity. For tomatoes to thrive, they need 6-8 hours of continuous, direct sunlight a day. Therefore, to maintain optimum growth, you should choose a location where the plants receive the maximum sunlight, regardless of whether they are grown in the ground.
Watering: The tomato plant likes to be in moist soil right from the seedling stage up. If the temperature is hot, you may even have to water them twice a day. An irrigation system that drips helps a lot. The topsoil can also be mulched with dried leaves, grass clippings, straw, or mulching sheets. As a result, water evaporation is prevented, as well as the growth of weeds.Water your plants once a day thoroughly and deeply, so the roots are well hydrated. Plant parts that are not adequately watered may not be able to absorb or absorb nutrients. For example, it could not be the soil deficient in calcium that causes bloom end rot in tomatoes. Instead, it is usually found due to a calcium deficiency caused by this transportation issue. The issue of blossom end rot can only be prevented by proper watering, which is irreversible.
Time of planting: There is no season when tomatoes can grow as they are day-neutral plants.Northern plains farmers take three crops, but the rabi crop fails to produce in frost-affected areas. Therefore, it is transplanted in July for the Kharif crop, the Rabi crop in October-November, and the said crop in February.The first transplanting in plains is done between December and January, the second between June and July, and the third between September and October.
Raising seedlings: Seedlings are grown on raised beds 60-100 cm wide and convenient length before one month of transplanting.For one month in the summer, cover nursery beds with transparent white polythene sheets to increase soil solarization. Insects, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, and seeds of weeds are all killed.A nursery area requires 5kg of well-rotten FYM, 20 g of neem cake, 200 g of fertilizer each of N, P, and K, 2.5g carbofuran, or 10-25 g of Trichoderma per m2.The nursery beds are protected against nematodes with 400 g/m2 of Neem cake, Castor cake, Neam leaf, Castor leaf, Pongamia leaf, and Calotropis leaf needs to be incorporated.Mulch seeds with green leaves and rinse with a rose can survive every morning after sowing. Removing the mulch as soon as the seeds germinate is the best method. Irrigate heavily on the previous day of transplanting one week before planting.To avoid damage from virus-transmitting insects, cover the crib with a fine nylon net.
Seed treatment: The seed is treated with 5-10 grams of Trichoderma per kilogram or 2 grams of carbendazim per kilogram.After the treated seeds are dried for 30 minutes in the shade, they are sown evenly in rows in 12.5 cm of depth and then covered with soil.
Land preparation: Plowing the field four to five times with a sufficient gap between plowings gives a fine tilth. Planking is necessary for leveling. We then open the furrows according to the recommended spacing. As a result, a well-decomposed FYM (25 t/ha) is added to the soil during land preparation.
Manuring: During soil preparation, mix rotten farmyard manure and compost well with the soil. It is recommended you give 15 kg of N:P: K2O/ha as fertilizer. Before transplanting, you can apply half of the nitrogen, half of the total phosphorus, and half of the potash as a basal. Apply one-fourth nitrogen and half potash 20-30 days following planting. Afterward, you can apply the remaining amount two months later.
Transplanting & Management: The soil is solarized for one month before planting to kill harmful pathogens, insects, and organisms. After that, you can use transparent plastic film (light is absorbed by the plastic sheet, thus increasing soil temperature and killing pathogens). Tomato seeds are planted on raised beds with a width of 80-90 cm and a convenient length. Mulch the bed after sowing, then irrigate daily in the morning with Rose Can. Water seedling beds 24 hours before transplanting to make sure seedlings can be easily uprooted. Twenty-five to thirty days after sowing, seedlings are ready to be transplanted. Seedlings should be dipped for 5 minutes in a solution of 100 ppm Streptocycline before transplanting to prevent bacterial wilt.
Spacing: Autumn-winter spacing is 75 x 60 cm; spring-summer spacing is 75 x 45 cm.
Irrigation: Tomatoes need to be rinsed carefully with just the right amount of water at the proper time. Therefore, a constant supply of moisture is necessary. A five- to seven-day interval is required during summer irrigation. It takes ten to fifteen days to irrigate during the winter. During the fruiting period, a drought followed by sudden heavy watering may result in cracked fruit.
Weed control: After transplanting for 20 to 25 days, the first wedding takes place. Weeds compete with crops; they also act as a shelter for harmful insects. Maintain a clean and weed-free farm at all times. In addition to mulching, there is also the option of using black plastic mulching (50 microns) to control weeds. This method controls approximately 95% of all weeds. If you choose to use organic mulch, like sugar cane trash, you can control about 60% weeds.
Manuring & Fertilization: The fertilizer needed depends on the soil’s fertility and how much organic manure is applied to the crop. The soil needs to have 15-20 tonnes of FYM well-decomposed for a good yield. It is recommended that 120 kg of N, 80 kg of P2O5, and 50 kg of K2O per hectare be added to achieve optimal yield. Planting includes half a dose of N and a total of P and K. A top dressing of half of N is applied 30 days after transplantation. Applying 180 kg N, 100 kg P2O5, and 60 kg K2O per hectare for hybrid varieties is recommended. When transplanting, 60 kg of N and half a kg of P and K are administered. Obtain the remaining quantities of phosphorus and potassium, and apply 60 kg of nitrogen 30 days after transplant. Following transplantation, N is given for the third time.
Harvesting: Most plants are first harvested between 75 and 90 days after they have been planted. For tomato planting, pick tomatoes according to the distance and mode of transport to the market.
Green stage: For long-distance markets, harvest tomato fruits at the maturity stage with green color.
Pink stage: After the tomato has changed from green to pink in color, it is ready for harvest. In such cases, it is best to send the fruits to a nearby market.
Maturity stage: When the tomatoes turn red, they are harvested and sold at the market.
Full maturity: When ripe, the fruit on the tree becomes wholly reddish and slightly crimson. Various durable materials such as ketchup, sauces, soups, chutneys, etc., can be made from such fruits. The fruit is removed, graded, and packed in corrugated boxes.
Damping-off: Young seedlings die from pre-emergence phage before they reach the soil surface, while post-emergence infections and soft, water-soaked plant tissues result from post-emergence infection. In the advanced stages of the disease, stems weaken and collapse.
Plant protection: The pest that is commonly found. Weather conditions were primarily dry when surveyed. The sap is sucked from the foliage, causing leaves to curl and curved upward or be cup-shaped. Flowers also drop when it occurs. A spray of our broad-spectrum Neem Oil every week is recommended to avoid pest infestations. Chemicals and insecticides have no place in your garden. Neem oil is applied to the seedling stage by spraying 5ml per liter and mature plants by spraying 10ml. Optionally, you can add half a teaspoon of baking soda to this spray. Patch-test your preparation before spraying the entire plant to ensure its potency.
Tomato yield per acre in Karnataka
Growing tomatoes is among the most profitable businesses in agriculture. Harvesting important commercial crops four times each year is an excellent option. Tomato is grown throughout the year in almost every season; however, a farmer can get the highest yield if they grow it in winter or spring. Growing is best at the beginning of the rainy season in June and July. Tomato farming is carried out in the summer months of January and February and is planted from October to November.The total period needed to grow commercial tomatoes is 110 to 140 days. Generally, yields start to appear after 50-60 days after sowing. From the first picking, picking can take place every 10 to 15 days. Farmer can go for picking about five times until the end of harvest. In total, the farmer can yield 8 to 12 tonnes/acre.
Cost of Tomato seed per acre: Approximately 60 to 80 gms of tomato seeds are needed for hybrid varieties per acre versus 200 gms of seeds for traditional varieties. Good quality tomato seeds cost around Rs 300 for 1-acre cultivation.
Cost of Tomato seed treatment per acre: Seeds are treated with Thiram (3g/kg seed) or Metalaxyl (3g/kg seed) to control soil and seed-borne pathogens and with Imidacloprid (5g/kg seed) to control pests. Furthermore, farmers can also treat their seeds with Trichoderma (4 grams per kilogram of seed). For one acre, all these seed treatments cost about Rs 250.
Cost of plowing Tomato field per acre: Plowing 1 acre and nursery seedbed are about Rs 1000.
Cost of transplanting per acre: One acre of tomato transplanting costs Rs 500, based on two laborers.
Cost of labor per acre: Every 15 days, 16 laborers are needed in the field to complete various tasks. As a result, the total labor cost is Rs 3600 (16 laborers).
Miscellaneous costs per acre: Various costs are involved in tomato cultivation, including equipment rental and irrigation costs. It costs Rs 4000 for these expenses for 120 days of growing tomatoes on 1-acre land.
The rental cost of land per acre: It usually amounts to Rs 6000 for a tomato farm.
Cost of pesticides per acre: A pesticide is any chemical or substance that kills insects, fungi, plants, or animals. Tomato cultivation requires these at various stages. As a result, the pesticide costs in 1 acre of tomato farming are 3500 rupees.
Cost of harvesting per acre: Labor and equipment costs total Rs 500 per acre.
Cost of marketing: In many cases, companies and supermarkets directly from farmers these days. The marketing expense is therefore eliminated. Some farmers, however, are forced to sell their produce. In this case, it costs Rs. 2500 to market the product because four harvests have been undertaken.
Tomato farming profit in Karnataka
There are 1,50,000 rupees in total profits from tomato cultivation on an acre. Profit: The total profit would differ between costs and benefits, which falls at Rs. 1 19,850. From 1-acre tomato cultivation, therefore, a farmer can earn about 1,20,000, or simply Rs 30,000 for four months.
Tips for growing tomatoes successfully in Karnataka
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Tomato plants may be straightforward to grow, but many things can go wrong during their short lifespan. Give your seedlings the best chance for success by taking a few extra steps to prevent them. To succeed in tomato farming, consider the following tips;
Tomatoes need slightly acidic soil to grow well: The ideal pH range for growing tomatoes is 6 to 7. Almost all farming centers/local extension services offer kits to test your soil pH. You can add lime to the soil to adjust its acidity. Alternatively, you can lower the pH of alkaline soil by adding sulfur. pH levels in the soil will need to adjust over the next few months.Due to this, you should amend your soil months before getting ready to plant.
Planting tomatoes every year on sand is a bad idea: Most crops are grown in this way. Once the tomatoes have been harvested, disease-causing pathogens and pathogens remain in the soil. Consequently, the plant will be exposed to these pathogens if planted on the same plot of land. The result will be losses and low yields for your tomato farm. By planting on different parts of the field each year, this problem is avoided.
Protect the soil by covering it with a black plastic sheet: Covering tomato beds with black plastic for a couple of weeks before planting can help warm them up. Along with warming the soil, the plastic also traps heat that kills insects and diseases. When planting in cool climates with short growing seasons, you can leave the plastic on for the first few weeks and plant the seedlings outside through a small slit. Heat will be transferred to the soil by the black plastic sheet. Consequently, tomato plants need temperatures above 60F to thrive.
Plant tomatoes with a healthy dressing of compost: Compost should be incorporated into soil preparation and should also be applied to tomato plants before planting. Fertilizer is also helpful in ensuring that plants start strong. An effective way to add fertilizer to a garden is to dig a trench in the middle of the bed. Plant the roots in a trench a few inches below the soil surface. When the digging has been completed, apply a fertilizer band so the tomatoes can grow. Use a bone meal-based fertilizer, which is high in phosphorus for root establishment. Several weeks after planting, apply a high-nitrogen fertilizer on the surface of the beds to promote lush, vegetative growth.
Seedlings need water to grow: The tomatoes may need watering every day if there is too much heat and water evaporates too fast. It is essential to water the tomatoes whenever the soil begins to dry. Mulch beds with a thick layer of straw after three to four weeks to conserve moisture and prevent weed growth.
Commonly asked questions about tomato farming in Karnataka
1. In Karnataka, where are tomatoes grown?
The program is extended to Kovar, Chikkaballapur, and Belgavi, three tomato-growing districts in central India, and Davangere and Haveri, two important corn-producing districts. Karnataka is a significant producer of tomatoes and maize.
2. What is the average tomato farmer’s profit per acre?
The average grower will net $950 per acre about half the time. So, on average, a grower can expect to earn more than $1,400 per acre once every six years.
3. What is the biggest tomato market in Karnataka?
A quarter of a million quintals landed each day on Koolar’s APMC market, making it one of Asia’s largest tomato markets before the pandemic took hold. Tomatoes are grown in Mulbagal and Srinivaspura taluks on an average of about 10,000 acres each.
4. What is the best way to grow tomatoes in the rainy season?
Choosing a site with 5-6 hours of direct sunlight is the first step. Next, it would help plant the tomato seeds about 1/4-inch-deep and three to four inches apart in well-drained soil. Next, fertilize the soil regularly with organic fertilizers. The seedlings will emerge within 10-14 days of sowing.
5. Can you grow tomatoes in Karnataka?
Karnataka produces high-quality rice on 46,000 hectares of land. As a result, the average yield in the State is tops. Among Karnataka’s tomato-growing regions, Kolar is at the forefront. It is common for farmers to grow 40 to 50 tonnes of tomatoes per acre in the district with good horticulture practices.